عنوان مقاله [English]
“A city is not a Hotel”, a metaphor which has been used by John Friedmann (1999) to describe transformations of local governance, is relatively new and unknown, but in relation with urban society and management of Iran today is timely and meaningful. Based on this metaphor, it is assumed that the city would be like a hotel. As a hotel, well- paying guests occupy the top floors of the tower, whilst numbers of homeless people jostle in the alleys. According to Friedmann, there are three fatal flaws in this metaphor. No one can be said to “own” the city in the sense that stockholders own a capitalist enterprise. Cities are not supposed to be “profitable” and many of the city’s inhabitants harbor strong attachments to the small corner of the earth. But if the city is not a capitalist enterprise, and there is no distinguished Board of Directors, then what is it? ...The city is not a “hotel”, because it is, potentially at least, a political community, a collective entity whose management is ultimately accountable to its long- term residents, its “citizens”. It is citizens who constitute its “putative” Board of Directors”, with the implicit power to “hire and fire” the city’s management.